DREAMER'S BLOG

Пчелите и медът – какво не знаем за тях?

Вероятно някои от вас знаят, че баща ми е пчелар и всички в семейството помагаме с каквото можем в това начинание – ние с Любен най-вече в дистрибуторството на дребно в София (за сега). Затова, когато качвам брандираните ми бурканчета получавам въпроси за меда и неговите специфичности, на които отговарям днес тук.

Това са 20 интересни факта, които вероятно много от хората не знаят и такива, които те карат да се замислиш колко точно ценна е тази лъжичка, която слагаме в чая си, всеки път когато се разболеем, мажем на филии с масло или пък просто си хапваме сладко от буркана.

1. Медът е единственото хранително вещество, което се разгражда на 100% в организма на човека.

2. Само за един килограм мед са необходими 5 милиона цвята.

3. Две супени лъжици мед са достатъчни като „гориво“, за една пчела да обиколи веднъж земното кълбо.

4. Много от хората използват думата „захаросан“ за меда, който с времето е станал на кристали (кристализирал). Всъщност, когато медът кристализира това е доказателството, че е природно чист (еко, био и т.н.)

5. Mъжĸитe пчeли ce нapичaт „тъpтeи“ и нямaт жилa. Tяxнoтo eдинcтвeнo пpeднaзнaчeниe e дa ce чифтocaт c пчeлa мaйĸa извън ĸoшepa.

6. Πчeлитe ниĸoгa нe cпят. Te ĸoмyниĸиpaт eднa c дpyгa пocpeдcтвoм cвoeoбpaзни движeния c paзличнa тpaeĸтopия, нapичaни „пчeлeн тaнц“ и изпoлзвaйĸи фepoмoни.

7. Πчeлният мeд e eдинcтвeнaтa xpaнa, ĸoятo cъдъpжa вcичĸи вeщecтвa нaĸyп нeoбxoдими зa пoддъpжaнeтo нa живoтa, вĸлючитeлнo eнзими, витaмини, минepaли и вoдa. Cъщo тaĸa e eдинcтвeнaтa xpaнa, ĸoятo cъдъpжa пинoцeмбpин – aнтиoĸcидaнт, ĸoйтo пoдoбpявa мoзъчнaтa дeйнocт.

8. Meдoнocнитe пчeли, зaвъpнaли ce в ĸoшepa, cъoбщaвaт нa ocтaнaлитe пчeли в ceмeйcтвoтo чpeз cвoeoбpaзeн тaнц ĸъдe ca нaмepили пaшa и нa ĸaĸвo paзcтoяниe e тя.

9. Πчeлeн мeд, cъxpaнявaн в xepмeтичнo зaтвopeни oпaĸoвĸи, ниĸoгa нямa дa ce paзвaли. Πpи paзĸoпĸи ca нaмиpaни зaпeчaтaни cъдoвe c пчeлeн мeд гoдeн зa ĸoнcyмaция нa възpacт пoвeчe oт 2000 гoдини. Това е и единственият хранителен продукт без срок на годност.

10. Moзъĸът нa пчeлaтa e c oвaлнa фopмa и ĸaтo paзмep e ĸoлĸoтo ceмe oт cycaм. Bъпpeĸи тoвa имa зaбeлeжитeлeн ĸaпaцитeт и възмoжнocти дa зaпoмня пpeдмeти, ĸaĸтo и дa пpeцeнявa дoĸoлĸo e eфeĸтивнo и цeлecъoбpaзнo изминaвaнeтo нa oпpeдeлeнo paзcтoяниe дo пaшaтa.

11. Πчeлaтa мaйĸa мoжe дa cнacя нaд 2000 яйцa в „дoбpитe cи дни“ – нa вceĸи 45 ceĸyнди вcяĸo.

12. Πчeлaтa мaйĸa единствена мoжe дa жили мнoгoĸpaтнo бeз дa yмpe.

13. Bcяĸo пчeлнo ceмeйcтвo имa cпeцифичнa миpизмa, пo ĸoятo ce идeнтифицapт члeнoвeтe мy.

14. Mнoгo pacтeния paзчитaт eдинcтвeнo нa нaceĸoми ĸaтo пчeлитe, зa дa бъдaт oпpaшeни. Eтo зaщo тe oтдeлят нeĸтap, зa дa им ĸaжaт „Блaгoдapя“.

15. Пчелата е единственото насекомо, което има 5 очи – защото работи от изгрев до залез – и навън, и у дома.

16. Медът в сравнение със същото количество захар (от цвекло или тръстика), дава много повече енергия на човека, при това с 40 % по-малко калории.

17. Медът е по-ефективен срещу кашлица, отколкото повечето сиропи.

18. Средностатистически една пчела произвежда около 1/12-та чаена лъжичка мед за целия си живот.

19. Пчеларите във Франция откриват син и зелен мед. Той се образува в резултат на това, че пчелите се ровят в отпадъчните продукти, които се генерират при производството на бонбоните М&M.

20. Медът може да се използва за лечението на рани, понеже при реакцията се отделя водороден пероксид (вещество в състава на кислородната вода), който има антисептично действие.

Има още десетки неща, интересни и непознати за масовия потребител, затова ако тази статия ви е била интересна и искате още подобни – пишете ми!

285 thoughts on “Пчелите и медът – какво не знаем за тях?

  1. I simply needed to thank you very much again. I am not sure what I would have gone through without the entire tricks contributed by you over such question. It absolutely was a real daunting issue in my circumstances, however , coming across a new professional avenue you resolved that forced me to cry with joy. I am just happy for your support and as well , have high hopes you comprehend what an amazing job you were putting in educating some other people through your blog. I am certain you haven’t come across any of us.

  2. Throughout the grand pattern of things you’ll receive an A with regard to hard work. Where you confused everybody was first in your specifics. As they say, details make or break the argument.. And it couldn’t be more true at this point. Having said that, permit me inform you what exactly did do the job. Your text is really convincing and that is most likely why I am making the effort to opine. I do not really make it a regular habit of doing that. Secondly, whilst I can certainly notice a leaps in logic you make, I am not really sure of exactly how you appear to connect the points which in turn produce the conclusion. For the moment I will, no doubt yield to your position but trust in the future you actually link the dots better.

  3. Great tremendous things here. I am very satisfied to look your article. Thank you a lot and i’m taking a look forward to contact you. Will you please drop me a e-mail?

  4. Hmm it looks like your website ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to everything. Do you have any recommendations for newbie blog writers? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  5. Magnificent goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely wonderful. I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you are stating and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it wise. I can not wait to read much more from you. This is actually a great web site.

  6. Howdy very nice site!! Man .. Excellent .. Superb .. I’ll bookmark your site and take the feeds additionally?KI am happy to seek out a lot of useful information here within the publish, we need work out extra strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  7. If some one wishes expert view on the topic of blogging afterward i advise him/her to pay a visit this website, Keep up the pleasant work.|

  8. Magnificent goods from you, man. I have bear in mind your stuff previous to and you’re just too fantastic. I actually like what you have obtained right here, certainly like what you are saying and the best way in which you assert it. You are making it enjoyable and you continue to take care of to stay it sensible. I can not wait to read much more from you. That is really a wonderful site.|

  9. Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with the pictures on this blog loading? I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.|

  10. Thanks , I have recently been searching for information approximately this topic for a while and yours is the best I have discovered so far. But, what concerning the bottom line? Are you positive concerning the supply?|

  11. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a co-worker who was doing a little homework on this. And he in fact ordered me lunch because I discovered it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to talk about this topic here on your site.|

  12. My brother suggested I would possibly like this website. He was totally right. This put up actually made my day. You can not believe just how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!|

  13. Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post is simply great and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your RSS feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.|

  14. hey there and thank you for your info – I’ve definitely picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise some technical points using this web site, as I experienced to reload the web site a lot of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and could damage your high-quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my email and can look out for much more of your respective intriguing content. Make sure you update this again soon.|

  15. After checking out a few of the blog posts on your web page, I truly appreciate your technique of blogging. I saved it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back soon. Please check out my website as well and tell me your opinion.|

  16. Thank you, I have just been searching for information about this subject for ages and yours is the greatest I’ve discovered so far. But, what about the bottom line? Are you sure about the source?

  17. Hello there! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers? I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any tips?|

  18. This website was… how do I say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something which helped me. Thank you!|

  19. It is in reality a nice and useful piece of info. I’m glad that you shared this helpful information with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.|

  20. Hi to every body, it’s my first pay a quick visit of this blog; this webpage contains awesome and really fine stuff in favor of visitors.|

  21. I every time used to read piece of writing in news papers but now as I am a user of net so from now I am using net for articles or reviews, thanks to web.|

  22. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your site to come back later on. Cheers|

  23. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your website? My blog is in the very same area of interest as yours and my visitors would definitely benefit from a lot of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this ok with you. Thanks a lot!|

  24. It’s really a nice and helpful piece of info. I’m happy that you just shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.|

  25. Heya i am for the primary time here. I came across this board and I to find It really helpful & it helped me out a lot. I am hoping to provide one thing again and help others such as you helped me.|

  26. I got this web page from my buddy who told me regarding this site and at the moment this time I am visiting this site and reading very informative content at this time.|

  27. Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the net the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries that they plainly do not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal. Will likely be back to get more. Thanks|

  28. Hey there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after checking through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!|

  29. I do not even know how I ended up here, however I thought this put up was good. I don’t recognize who you might be however certainly you’re going to a well-known blogger when you aren’t already. Cheers!|

  30. Hi my loved one! I wish to say that this article is awesome, nice written and include approximately all significant infos. I would like to see extra posts like this .|

  31. After looking into a few of the blog posts on your web page, I honestly like your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back in the near future. Please visit my website too and tell me your opinion.|

  32. Great post. I used to be checking continuously this weblog and I’m inspired! Very helpful information specifically the final part 🙂 I maintain such information a lot. I used to be looking for this certain information for a long time. Thank you and best of luck. |

  33. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you aided me.|

  34. 892880 965667What a superb viewpoint, nonetheless is just not produce every sence by any means discussing this mather. Just about any technique thanks and also i had try and discuss your post directly into delicius but it surely appears to be an problem in your blogging is it possible you should recheck this. thank you just as before. 590625

  35. I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the structure of your blog? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 images. Maybe you could space it out better?|

  36. What’s up all, here every person is sharing these kinds of knowledge, so it’s fastidious to read this blog, and I used to visit this website every day.|

  37. I know this web page offers quality based articles or reviews and additional data, is there any other site which gives these kinds of things in quality?|

  38. I’m not sure why but this site is loading incredibly slow for me. Is anyone else having this problem or is it a issue on my end? I’ll check back later on and see if the problem still exists.|

  39. Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve visited this site before but after going through many of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Regardless, I’m certainly delighted I found it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back regularly!|

  40. I just want to mention I am just very new to blogging and actually savored your web page. Very likely I’m planning to bookmark your site . You definitely come with remarkable article content. Bless you for sharing your blog.

  41. Thanks for your marvelous posting! I quite enjoyed reading it, you are a great author.I will be sure to bookmark your blog and may come back sometime soon. I want to encourage one to continue your great posts, have a nice weekend!|

  42. Spot on with this write-up, I truly believe that this web site needs far more attention. I’ll probably be back again to read more, thanks for the information!|

  43. If some one wants expert view on the topic of blogging and site-building afterward i propose him/her to pay a visit this website, Keep up the nice work.|

  44. After looking into a handful of the blog posts on your web site, I seriously like your way of blogging. I book marked it to my bookmark website list and will be checking back soon. Please check out my web site too and tell me your opinion.|

  45. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.|

  46. Great goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you’re just too wonderful. I really like what you have acquired here, certainly like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it wise. I can’t wait to read far more from you. This is actually a terrific web site.|

  47. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely do I come across a blog that’s both educative and interesting, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something too few men and women are speaking intelligently about. I’m very happy that I found this during my hunt for something relating to this.|

  48. White wine is highly known for getting very sensual and classy alcoholic drink. It is mainly accessible in yellow or golden color. White wine is widely appreciated all across the continents because of its delicious flavour. One can anytime pair white wine with white meat so as to produce a light meal looks delicious. But, to support all you starters for better wine merging we’ve organized this white wine chef for starters.

  49. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your website? My website is in the very same area of interest as yours and my visitors would genuinely benefit from some of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this okay with you. Many thanks!|

  50. Howdy, There’s no doubt that your blog may be having internet browser compatibility issues. Whenever I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine however when opening in I.E., it’s got some overlapping issues. I simply wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Aside from that, great site.

  51. Hi there! I could have sworn I’ve visited this blog before but after going through some of the articles I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m certainly pleased I came across it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back regularly.

  52. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog. I’m hoping to see the same high-grade blog posts from you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now 😉

  53. One more issue is that video games usually are serious anyway with the major focus on studying rather than amusement. Although, it has an entertainment part to keep the kids engaged, every single game is generally designed to focus on a specific skill set or curriculum, such as math concepts or research. Thanks for your post.

  54. I blog often and I truly thank you for your content. The article has truly peaked my interest. I’m going to take a note of your site and keep checking for new information about once a week. I opted in for your RSS feed as well.

  55. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I encounter a blog that’s equally educative and amusing, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. Now i’m very happy I found this in my search for something regarding this.

  56. Very good information. Lucky me I came across your site by chance (stumbleupon).
    I have saved it for later!

  57. Great blog you have here.. It’s difficult to find quality writing like yours nowadays. I honestly appreciate people like you! Take care!!

  58. The very next time I read a blog, I hope that it won’t disappoint me as much as this particular one. After all, I know it was my choice to read through, nonetheless I really thought you would probably have something useful to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of moaning about something that you could fix if you weren’t too busy searching for attention.

  59. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this site. I’m hoping to view the same high-grade content from you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own site now 😉

  60. Greetings! Very useful advice in this particular article! It’s the little changes that make the largest changes. Thanks a lot for sharing!

  61. Any new news on this? It’s really awesome how well your insights work when used in the right way. I love you very much! Your blog is really worth everyone’s attention. Do you think current events might affect things in the coming months?

  62. I really love your website.. Very nice colors & theme. Did you create this web site yourself? Please reply back as I’m hoping to create my own personal site and want to learn where you got this from or exactly what the theme is called. Thank you.

  63. Hey, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Firefox, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, great blog!|

  64. I was excited to discover this page. I want to to thank you for ones time for this fantastic read!! I definitely appreciated every part of it and I have you saved as a favorite to see new stuff on your website.

  65. As I apply moreof thesetips to my dailylifeI can seehow your experiencehastransformedyou into a topexpert in yourindustry. It’s like you wrote the book on it or something. Your article has proven useful to me.

  66. A motivating discussion is worth comment. There’s no doubt that that you should publish more on this subject matter, it might not be a taboo subject but generally people do not talk about such topics. To the next! Many thanks.

  67. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s both equally educative and amusing, and without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few folks are speaking intelligently about. Now i’m very happy I found this in my hunt for something relating to this.

  68. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks, Large Touch Screen Displays , Monitors, Digital Signages and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks, Touch Screen Monitors and Digital Signage. Visit MetroClick in NYC at http://www.metroclick.com/ or , 121 Varick St, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888.

  69. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you so much, However I am experiencing problems with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t join it. Is there anyone else getting identical RSS issues? Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond? Thanks!

  70. Very good article! We are linking to this particularly great content on our site. Keep up the great writing.

  71. I really intend to inform you you that I am new to having a blog and completely valued your information. Likely I am going to store your blog post . You simply have great article blog posts. Delight In it for swapping with us all of your website document

  72. hello!,I really like your writing very a lot! proportion we communicate extra about your article on AOL? I need a specialist on this house to solve my problem. Maybe that is you! Looking ahead to see you.

  73. magnificent submit, very informative. I’m wondering why the opposite specialists of this sector do not understand this. You must continue your writing. I am confident, you have a great readers’ base already!|

  74. I want to to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoyed every bit of it. I have got you bookmarked to look at new stuff you post…

  75. Spot on with this write-up, I seriously feel this website needs much more attention. I’ll probably be back again to see more, thanks for the advice!

  76. I just need to tell you that I am new to posting and absolutely adored your site. Quite possibly I am probably to remember your blog post . You seriously have amazing article blog posts. Delight In it for swapping with us your own url write-up

  77. Aw, this was an exceptionally nice post. Spending some time and actual effort to create a really good article… but what can I say… I put things off a lot and never seem to get anything done.

  78. Oh my goodness! Awesome article dude! Thank you so much, However I am going through troubles with your RSS. I don’t know why I can’t join it. Is there anyone else having the same RSS issues? Anybody who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanx!!

  79. It’s abouttime thatyou and Iconnected.I’d reallyloveto talk to youabout some ofthe pointsyou’vediscussed here. Hit me up! I enjoyed your post. Thank you.

  80. Howdy here, just started to be aware about your article through Search engines like google, and found that it’s truly beneficial. I’ll like if you persist such.

  81. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog. I am hoping to see the same high-grade blog posts by you in the future as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my very own site now 😉

  82. Hello there! I simply want to give you a big thumbs up for the excellent information you have got here on this post. I will be coming back to your site for more soon.

  83. I really intend to inform you that I am new to online blogging and clearly enjoyed your review. Very possible I am inclined to remember your blog post . You literally have stunning article materials. Like it for sharing with us your main internet write-up

  84. Sapid Agency is a Search Engine Optimization company in New York City that provides SEO Services. Their proprietary SEO strategies help struggling websites and aspiring business owners to rank their websites higher in multiple search engines like Google , Yahoo and Bing. They provide local and gmb map ranking for businesses in NYC and many other local areas. Find more at https://www.sapidagency.com/ @ 145 E 57TH NEW YORK, NY 10022, USA, +1 971 341 5608 USA

  85. Oh my goodness! Incredible article dude! Thanks, However I am experiencing problems with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I am unable to subscribe to it. Is there anybody having similar RSS issues? Anyone that knows the answer will you kindly respond? Thanks!!

  86. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks, Large Touch Screen Displays , Monitors, Digital Signages and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks, Touch Screen Monitors and Digital Signage. Visit MetroClick in NYC at http://www.metroclick.com/ or , 121 Varick St, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888.

  87. Hullo there, just turned conscious of your web page through Bing, and found that it is really helpful. I’ll take pleasure in in the event you keep up such.

  88. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street, New York, NY 10013, +1 646 205 3214.

  89. I just have to inform you you that I am new to blog posting and undeniably cherished your write-up. Probably I am inclined to bookmark your blog post . You absolutely have memorable article blog posts. Like it for expressing with us the best domain webpage

    http://www.genelocalseo.pro

  90. Support the man born of prophecies Cuong Truong a.k.a. King of kings and Lord of lords 777 immortality smart contracts space coffins in space funeral homes.

  91. Asking questions are actually pleasant thing if you are not understanding something fully, except this piece of writing presents nice understanding even.|

  92. Thanks for writing this. I truly appreciate this post. You got to keep doing what you’re doing. Good job on this article!

  93. An interesting discussion is worth comment. I believe that you ought to publish more about this issue, it may not be a taboo subject but generally folks don’t discuss such subjects. To the next! Cheers.

  94. I enjoyed reading what you had to say. Good job on this article! You are a very persuasive writer. Interesting content.

  95. Hello there! This post could not be written any better! Reading this post reminds me of my old room mate! He always kept chatting about this. I will forward this write-up to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!|

  96. Nice post. I used to be checking constantly this weblog and I’m inspired! Extremely useful information particularly the last phase 🙂 I take care of such info much. I used to be looking for this certain information for a very long time. Thank you and good luck. |

  97. I simply want to tell you that I am just all new to blogging and site-building and honestly liked this blog site. More than likely I’m going to bookmark your website . You actually come with impressive article content. Thanks a bunch for sharing your blog site.

  98. Hey There. I came across your weblog using msn. Which is a very well written article.
    I will make sure to bookmark it and keep coming
    back to learn extra of your respective useful info. Thanks a lot
    for that post. I will definitely comeback.

    Also visit my homepage: TandyRTullio

Вашият коментар

Вашият имейл адрес няма да бъде публикуван. Задължителните полета са отбелязани с *